The health problems of women and men are different from each other. In such a situation, the diseases caused by both and the effects on their health are also different. But the question is why the health problems of both are opposite? The impact of all the diseases in the world is seen differently on men and women.
Menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause are all part of women’s lives, which makes them different from men, so their illnesses and their effects on the body are also different. There are many diseases that affect only women.
The social status of women is slightly lighter than men in most parts and cultures of the world. This is the reason why much attention was not paid to women’s health problems, their treatment and care. Time progressed, but women empowerment, education and health facilities could not improve much. Because of this, she continued to be a victim of discrimination. That is why the World Health Organization (WHO) and all countries of the world are taking measures to provide better health to women while eliminating gender inequality.
Why special attention should be paid to women’s health reform? –
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According to figures released by the United Nations, women constitute 49.6 percent of the world’s total population. A study published in the 2011 Health Care Women International Journal shows that women account for two-thirds of the world’s labor department, but in contrast their income is only 10 percent of total income. This data does not include women engaged in domestic work.
Despite being such a large part of the world’s population and contributing significantly to development, women were not able to get the kind of health facilities to which they were genuinely entitled. Women and men are different from behavioral and physical terms. This means that the needs of women cannot be met on the basis of one size fit all on many social aspects.
Women’s health issues should be better understood, as their good health (or lack thereof) plays an important role in building the next generation of humans. There is a need to focus on women’s health, especially when women other than men have to face many problems in particular.
Specially diseases affecting women –
Women have different health and needs than men. She faces a variety of health challenges, experiencing biological stages such as menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth and menopause. Given below are the problems that women alone have to face.
- Gynecological health problems such as irregular periods, bacterial vaginosis, PCOS, endometriosis, adenomyosis, uterine fibroids and vulvodynia.
- Problems related to pregnancy such as postnatal care, miscarriage, premature birth, cesarean section, birth defects, breastfeeding problems, and postpartum depression.
- Ovarian cancer and cervical cancer.
- Disorders such as Turner syndrome and Rett syndrome.
- Violence such as female genital mutilation and infant killing.
Diseases that affect women more than men –
There are many diseases that can happen to both men and women, but the effect on women is different. In these cases, the symptoms may be similar, but the care and necessary conditions for treatment and recovery from the disease are different. The following diseases affect women differently.
- The effect of alcohol habit is more on women than men. Alcohol addiction can cause problems such as breast cancer, heart disease and fetal alcohol syndrome (where the mother’s drinking habits can damage the brain of infants).
- Heart diseases affect men and women equally, but women are more likely to die of a heart attack than men.
- Women are more prone to depression and anxiety than men, fear of depression after delivery is higher among women.
- Women are more at risk of developing arthritis than men.
- Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) affect both men and women, but delaying treatment can lead to infertility in women. In women, its symptoms are often not very clear, due to which they are not treated.
- According to a survey by the American Psychological Association (APA), women are experiencing increased stress and are at greater risk of infertility.
- Women are more prone to stroke than men. This is because while family history, high blood pressure and high cholesterol are the leading causes of stroke, the risk increases in women due to the use of contraceptive medicine, hormone replacement therapy and pregnancy.
- Due to the method of urination, women are more at risk of urinary tract infection (UTI) than men.
Challenging Factors of Women’s Health –
Even though half of the world’s population is women, their health issues are not being given enough attention in many countries including India. The following factors are responsible for causing this condition.
1- Socio-cultural reasons
Compared to men in most parts of the world, women could not get the social rights they should have. This gender inequality has weakened women’s education, economic, social freedom and health services. In many parts of the world, women do not have the right to travel alone, depend on others for health, even in terms of family planning. Due to giving priority to boys in the society, not only female feticide and infant killing have increased, as well as women have been the victim of lifelong neglect in terms of hygiene, nutrition.
2- Economic factors
According to a report released in 2013 by the United Nations Women and World Bank, women and children account for a large proportion of the 767 million (76.7 million) people living in poverty worldwide. Poverty directly affects health services. Additionally, according to a 2011 study published in the Journal of Health Care Women International, women with two-thirds of the world’s share in working hours make only 10 percent of their total income financially.
3- Scientific and medical research
According to a study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation in 2003, women were underestimated in the survey conducted to determine the modernization of medical, treatment and health-related technologies. In such a situation, the essential components of women’s health are left somewhere.
Women’s Health Issues
Keeping in mind the common health problems in women, top organizations like WHO have appealed to pay special attention to them. The following 10 issues related to women’s health require attention from countries around the world including India.
Women have the highest risk of getting two types of cancer (breast and cervical). If we look at the data per year, it is found that every year about 5 lakh women die due to both these types of cancer. If the symptoms of these cancers are detected in time, then the chances of their recovery are increased. To do this, many important topics need special attention.
- Awareness about breast and cervical cancer
- Special screening and cheap treatment of cancer and treatment
- Easy availability of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination
- Disseminating the myths related to mastectomy in breast cancer
- Information related to reproduction
Many studies have been done on reproduction and many aspects related to it. The reproductive system is a complex process. As such, UTIs and bacterial infections do not affect a woman’s pregnancy power. However, it may have many side effects in future. To know and understand the facts related to reproductive health it is necessary to pay attention to the following topics.
- To dispel rumors about reproductive health
- Making people aware of fertility and related health problems
- Awareness about the use of contraception and its availability to the public.
- Providing sex education and related information to children.
- Related health information
Prenatal and post-natal care can improve the health of the baby as well as reduce the number of maternal deaths globally. In this regard, care of doctors as well as friends and family plays a big role. The following steps should be taken to promote maternal health.
- Proper information about prenatal and postnatal care
- Cheap arrangements for screening, testing and vaccination before and during pregnancy
- Special emphasis on nutrition, exercise and mental health care
- Take special physical care and care of the mother in the event of an abortion
- Dispelling myths and old thinking about girls’ birth
- HIV / AIDS
In the absence of awareness, the disease has spread its foot rapidly around the world. Three decades after the first reported case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), its risk has not yet been reduced. The risk of infection is higher in young women. The spread of this infection spread rapidly due to lack of information about sex education, condom access, as well as safe sex. It is necessary to make extensive efforts to prevent this infection by making people aware.
- Sexually transmitted disease
In addition to HIV / AIDS and HPV, women are at risk of sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis. Since, like men, women do not show any obvious symptoms, it is not easily treated. Not only do these infections cause women to suffer from health problems, they can also cause problems in their delivery and child health. The following steps should be taken to avoid STIs in women.
- Knowledge of sex education.
- The use of condoms, contraception can prevent sexually transmitted diseases.
- Ensuring easy availability of condoms, contraceptives.
- Prevent violence against women
According to the WHO report, one in three women under the age of 50 have to suffer sexual violence from an acquaintance or a stranger. Violence, whether physical or sexual in nature, has a profound impact on a woman’s physical and mental health. To overcome this, special attention needs to be paid to the following topics.
- Give children sexual education. Both men and women should be educated about preventing sexual violence.
- Sensitize the administration and doctors about violence against women.
- Mental Health
Depression, anxiety and various types of psychosomatic complaints are more common in women, according to the WHO report. It can sometimes have long-term effects on mental health, which can affect life. This is the reason why special attention needs to be given to mental health in women.
- Talk about issues related to mental health and think about its diagnosis and treatment.
- Provide social support to the women affected by such problems, so that they can come out of it at the earliest.
- Non-Communicable Diseases
Non-communicable diseases like diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity etc. are fast spreading diseases among women. Prevention of these requires attention to the following points.
- To spread awareness among people about these diseases. Giving information about appropriate remedies to fight it.
- Motivating girls and women to improve lifestyle through proper nutrition, exercise and mental health.
- Ensuring easy access to public health systems and medicines.
- Problems occurring to women at an early age
Nowadays, from a young age, girls start having problems related to lifestyle. It may also take the form of major illness in future. They have to face many problems due to lack of proper nutrition and health information. This may lead to STI, UTI, HIV and many other reproductive health challenges.
- Educate girls about their health.
- It is the responsibility of the parents to provide health and safe health services to the girls.
- Providing easy access to health facilities.
- Problems occurring to women with age
With aging in a developing society, women stop going out of work for work. Which makes it difficult for them to take advantage of pension, health insurance and related services. Chronic arthritis, osteoporosis, cataract, glaucoma, and kidney disease are common problems in women as they age. The following steps should be taken to provide healthcare.
- Make girls aware of possible future health problems at an early age. So that she can make adequate security and prevention arrangements.
- Arrangements should be made to provide affordable and easily accessible healthcare.
- To keep women mentally and physically healthy during old age, provide a better environment for their food and mental health.