Overview of Middle Meningeal Artery
The middle meningeal artery is typically the third branch of the first part of the maxillary artery, one of the two terminal branches of the external carotid artery. After closing the maxillary artery in the infratemporal fossa, it moves through the foreman spinosum to supply the outer meningeal layer and the calvaria to the dura mater.
The middle meningeal artery is the largest of the three (paired) arteries that supply meninges, the others being the anterior meningeal artery and the posterior meningeal artery.
The anterior branch of the middle meningeal artery runs under the arteries. Injuries are likely at this point, where the skull is thin.
Arterial rupture may give rise to an epidural hematoma. In the dry cranium, the middle meningeal, which runs within the dura mater around the brain, forms a deep groove in the calvarium.
The middle meningeal artery is fused with the arterycotemporal nerve, which wraps around two easily recognizable arteries in the dissection of the human artery and is also easily damaged in surgery.