The formation of blood in everyone’s body is done in the same way. Yet everyone’s blood group is different. There are mainly four blood groups – A, B, AB, and O. These blood groups are both positive and negative. On this basis, the blood group is divided into 8 parts. The blood group of each person depends on the genes of his parents.
Today in this article you will know what is blood group and how it is recognized –
What Is A Blood Group?
Blood mainly consists of four components –
- Red blood cells carry oxygen throughout the body.
- White blood cells play an important role in the body’s immune system.
- Plasma is a yellowish liquid. It mainly consists of proteins, which help in maintaining the proper functioning of the whole body.
- Platelets, act as blood clotting.
The blood group mainly depends on antigens and antibodies, which are a type of protein molecule. Antigens are on the surface of red blood cells, while antibodies are in plasma. Together these two determine the type of blood.
Type Of Blood Group
There are mainly four types of blood groups and doctors call it the ABO system. These groups are as follows –
- Blood Group A – In this, red blood cells contain A antigens and B antibodies.
- Blood Group B – Contains B antigens and A antibodies.
- Blood Group O – It does not contain any antigen, but contains both A and B antibodies.
- Blood Group AB – This blood group contains both A and B antigens, while none of the antibodies.
Apart from A and B, there is also a third type of antigen, which is called the Rh factor. Whose blood has this Rh factor, then it means that he is Rh-positive i.e. his blood group is positive. At the same time, someone who does not have this antigen in his blood is Rh-negative i.e. his blood group is negative. On this basis, there are a total of 8 types of blood –
- Blood Group A positive
- Blood Group A Negative
- Blood Group B Positive
- Blood Group B Negative
- Blood Group O Positive
- Blood Group O Negative
- Blood Group AB Positive
- Blood Group AB Negative
Which blood group can be given which blood?
Which blood can be given to which person, we have tried to explain it below –
- A Positive – This is the most common blood group. A person of this group can give his blood to a person of A positive and AB positive group.
- A Negative – This is considered a rare blood group. If a person is A negative, then he can donate his blood to any type of A and AB group person.
- B Positive – A person in this group can give his blood to B positive and AB-positive person only.
- B Negative – A person of this blood group can give his blood to any type of B and AB blood type person.
- AB Positive – People with this rare blood group can take any type of blood or plasma. They are known as Universal Recipes.
- AB Negative – It is considered to be the rarest blood group and the number of people in this group is also less. Someone with this blood type is known as a “universal plasma donor” because this type of plasma can be given to anyone.
- O Positive – This is one of the most common blood types. With this, blood with any positive blood group can be given.
- O Negative – A person with this rare blood group can give blood to a person with any blood group.
Blood Group Identification
To identify the blood group, lab technicians mix a blood sample with antibodies that attack A and B blood to see how it reacts. Let us now know how to identify the blood group –
- To know the blood group, red blood cells are mixed with different anti-bodies solutions. If the solution contains B antibodies and cells contain B antigens, it means the blood group is B.
- If the blood does not react with any of the Anti A and Anti B, it means that the blood group is O.
- Similar blood group tests, in which antibodies are used, can identify blood groups.
Who can donate blood?
Most people are able to donate blood. For that, it is necessary to fulfill the following criteria –
- It is important for a person to be fit and healthy.
- The weight of the person should be at least 50 kg.
- The age of the person should be between 17 to 66 years.
- If the age is more than 70 years, then blood has been given at least 2 years ago.
ABO system is best in blood type. There are about 8 types in this system, of which O positive is the common type and AB negative is the least common blood type. If blood transfusion is required, then the blood types of both the donor and the donor should be matched, so that any kind of complications can be avoided.