So in this article of My Health Only, we are going to tell you about the anal fissure, by knowing anal fissure, you will be able to treat it as soon as possible.
What is Fissure?
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When any type of cut or crack occurs in the anus or anal canal, it is called anal fissure. Fissure often occurs when you remove hard and large-sized stools during bowel movement. Fissure usually causes pain during bowel movement and blood along with feces.
During fissure, you may feel muscle cramps at the end of your anus. Fissures are a fairly common condition in young children, but can occur at any age. Most of Fissure’s problems are cured with common remedies, such as consuming a high amount of fiber in foods and taking a Sitz bath. Some people with fissures may require medical help and sometimes surgery.
Types of Anal Fissure –
How many types of fissures can there be?
There are two types of Fissure in general:
- Acute – A hole or crack on the upper surface of the skin is called an acute fissure.
- Chronic – Chronic fissures develop over time if the holes or cracks on the surface of the skin fail to heal.
Symptoms of Anal Fissure –
What can be the symptoms and signs of Fissure?
Symptoms and signs of fissure in the anus can include:
- Pain during bowel movements, sometimes severe pain.
- Pain after bowel movement that may last for several hours.
- Dark red color appearing on stool after bowel movement.
- Itching or burning around the anus.
- A crack in the skin around the anus.
- Lumps or skin tags appear on the skin near the anal fissure.
When should a doctor see –
The doctor should show up if the following problems occur:
- Pain during bowel movements.
- Blood in stool after bowel movement.
Causes and Risk Factors of Anal Fissure –
What can be the causes and risk factors of fissure?
Damage to the skin of the anus and anal canal is the most common cause of fissure. In most cases, it occurs to people who have constipation. Especially when hard and large size stool passes inside the anus, it damages the layers of the anus and the anal canal.
Other possible causes of fissure may include:
- Constant diarrhea.
- Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis.
- Long-term constipation.
- Sometimes sexually transmitted infections (STIs), such as syphilis or herpes, which can infect and damage the anus and rectal canal.
- The muscles of the anal sphincter are abnormally tight, which can increase the stretch in your anal canal. Which makes you susceptible to the anal fissure.
Risk factors include:
- Infancy – Many infants develop an anal fissure in the first year of their life.
- Aging – Blood circulation slows in older people, causing a decrease in blood flow to their anus region. Due to which they may develop partly Fissure’s problem.
- Pregnancy and childbirth.
- Reduce intake of fiber-rich diet.
- Scratching in the anus.
- Swelling of the anus and rectum.
- Rectal cancer
- After a bowel movement, wipe the anus with stiffness or excessive pressure.
Prevention of Anal Fissure –
How is Fissure prevented?
You can reduce the risks of developing anal fissure by preventing constipation. If you have ever had a fissure problem, then it is very important to prevent constipation.
You can prevent constipation with the help of:
- Eat a balanced diet, which includes a good amount of fiber, fruits and vegetables.
- Drink sufficient amounts of fluids.
- Keep exercising regularly.
- Drink alcohol and caffeinated substances (tea and coffee).
These are all good things to maintain digestion and intestinal health, which helps in preventing constipation. It is important that you gently wipe your anus after having a bowel movement.
When you feel a desire to go to the toilet, one should not ignore it. Because not emptying the intestines can cause constipation later. This is because the stool that accumulates in the intestines becomes hard, which can cause pain and scratches in the anus while passing through the anus.
Do not sit in the toilet for too long and do not force too much. Doing so increases the pressure in the anal canal. If you have any other health problems that increase your risk of getting fissures, tell your doctor about this. They will talk to you about how to manage this situation and how to reduce the risks of having an anal fissure.
Diagnosis of Anal Fissure –
How is Fissure tested?
Doctors can usually test the fissure by examining the area around the anus. But they can also test the rectum to confirm the test. During the test, the doctor inserts the endoscope into the anus of the patient, so that they can easily see the cleavage. An endoscope is a medical device, a thin tube that allows doctors to examine the anal canal. With the use of an endoscope, doctors can also detect other diseases related to the anus and rectum, such as hemorrhoids.
Other tests can also be done for this, including –
- Endoscopy – Examining the anus, anal canal and lower rectum.
- Sigmoidoscopy – examining the lower part of the large intestine.
- Biopsy – Samples of anal tissue to be tested.
- Colonoscopy – examining the colon.
Anal Fissure Treatment –
How is Fissure treated?
Most short-term fissures can be cured with home remedies in 4 to 6 weeks. Anal pain during bowel movement also cures a few days after the start of treatment.
Some steps that you can take to help reduce the symptoms and cure the fissure:
- Try to prevent constipation, for example:
- Include fruits, vegetables, beans and whole grains etc. in your daily diet. These foods are high in fiber.
- Drink plenty of fluids.
- Get some exercise every day.
- Take fiber supplements.
- Set the same time for daily bowel movements, take enough time and do not force.
- Use stool softener or laxatives etc. to reduce pain during bowel movements. Ask your doctor how long you can use laxatives.
- Pour hot water in a tub and let it sit for 20 minutes, do this 2 or 3 times a day. This process is called Sitz Bath. It reduces the pain of damaged tissues and makes the inner sphincter feel relaxed. In the Sitz Bath, bathed with hot water, it helps in cleaning and curing the anus. During this time only the hip and buttocks should be submerged in water.
- Ask your doctor whether or not a cream from a medical store can be used for a short time, like zinc oxide or 1% hydrocortisone.
Do not try to avoid bowel movements. Doing so can make you trouble and annoying. But do not try to have a bowel movement without the will, because doing so can make the situation worse, may keep the fissure open and create a painful condition.
If Fissure cannot recover from the medications, doctors consider surgery.
Not all Fissure cases are cured with home treatment. If Fissure’s problem persists for 8 to 12 weeks, you should see a doctor for it. If fissures are not cured by home care methods, treatment includes the following methods.
- Botox injection is applied to the anal sphincter. Injection of Botulinum toxin type A makes it temporarily paralyzes muscles, which reduces pain and speeds up the healing process.
- Minor surgery to relax muscles.
- Prescription creams such as nitrate or calcium channel blockers are applied to the fissure, causing the muscles to relax.
Before any approach related to surgery is considered. The doctor will test you again and try to determine why Fissure’s treatment has failed by performing other tests.
Some of the reasons that fail to treat Fissure include scarring or spasm in internal muscles. Surgery usually involves a cut in a small portion of the internal sphincter muscle. Doing this reduces pain and cramps, which helps the fissure to recover. In some rare cases, the ability to control bowel functions may decrease as a result of a muscle cut.
Complications of the anal fissure –
What complications can Fissure have?
Anal fissure is not associated with any serious disease, such as bowel cancer. However, anal cancer can at times mimic the anal fissure. Some possible complications of anal fissure include the following:
- Chronic anal fissure – the cracks caused by the fissure are not fixed. Over time, it can produce tissue with a wide scar in place of the fissure.
- Anal fistulas – In this, some abnormal ductus from surrounding organs (usually from other parts of the bowel) join the anal canal.
- Anal stenosis – In this, the anal canal starts contracting in an abnormal way.
What to eat in anal fissure? –
What to eat when there is a fissure?
Patients with anal fissure are suggested to eat food high in fiber.
If you have constipation or you have hard, large size and dry stool, it can cause fissures. Including high amounts of fiber in your diet, especially fruits and vegetables, can help prevent constipation.
Foods with good sources of fiber include:
- Wheat bran.
- Whole grains, including brown rice, oatmeal and bread, etc.
- Peas and beans.
- Seeds and nuts.
- Citrus fruits.